Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements Associated With the Periacetabular Osteotomy?

Scott A. Wingerter MD, Angela D. Keith MS, Perry L. Schoenecker MD, Geneva R. Baca BA, John C. Clohisy MD

Abstract

Background

Tranexamic acid (TXA) has shown safety and efficacy in reducing blood loss associated with various surgical procedures. However, to our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the effect of TXA on blood loss and transfusion requirements associated with periacetabular osteotomy (PAO).

Questions/purposes

The main purpose of this study is to determine whether TXA reduces blood loss and transfusion use in patients undergoing PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Our secondary purpose was to compare the frequency of symptomatic thromboembolic events between patients undergoing surgery with and without TXA.

Methods

A consecutive series of 100 periacetabular osteotomies performed by one surgeon was reviewed to compare the groups immediately before and after implementation of routine use of tranexamic acid (two retrospective cohorts). TXA dosing followed an established protocol with a standard dose of 1 g infused intravenously during 10 minutes before skin incision and an additional 1 g intravenously at wound closure. Outcome measures include total estimated blood loss perioperatively and transfusion requirements. Total estimated blood loss was calculated using a formula built from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data regarding surgical blood loss.

Results

The mean perioperative total estimated blood loss was less in the patients receiving TXA compared with blood loss in patients who did not receive TXA (706 mL versus 1021 mL; p < 0.001; 95% CI, −495 to −134). Twenty-six (52%) of the 50 patients who did not receive TXA had postoperative blood transfusions compared with 15 (30%) of 50 who received TXA (odds ratio, 0.395; 95% CI, 0.174–0.899; p = 0.0414). No symptomatic deep vein thromboses or symptomatic pulmonary emboli were identified in either group.

Conclusions

TXA reduces estimated blood loss and the frequency of transfusions in patients undergoing PAO for treatment of symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Future prospective studies should confirm our findings to determine whether patients undergoing PAO should receive routine perioperative TXA.

Level of Evidence

Level III, therapeutic study.

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